The most complex trading system is that of the upper Xingu; it includes a dozen tribes, each with its own products. Whether they live in the rainforest, in the gallery forests lining the rivers, in the arid savannas, or in the swamps, however, they share a common cultural background; they often combine hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods with rudimentary farming. Some farming populations are more or less attached to specific locales. They are unknown among the Ge, in the upper Xingu, and in some regions of Bolivia and Ecuador. Along with many kinds of baskets and hampers, these folk plait sifters, traps, fans, mats, and other household articles out of palm leaves and shafts of taquara, or bamboo.
The transmission of moral standards is rarely of a formal nature, and there is little punishment or repression. Arrows must be treated by rubbing with a certain drug , since their magical attributes are believed to be more effective than their technical properties. The tribes cannot accurately be classified as hunters and gatherers on the one hand or as farmers on the other. Social institutions, customs, knowledge, techniques, and cultivated plants are deeds or gifts of a culture hero or a pair of them, sometimes twin brothers who may represent the Sun and Moon. Thus, only the broadest generalizations can be made; one can mention certain cultural manifestations that are present in a great number of groups, even though varying in their actual expression, and illustrate them with specific examples—but always with the qualification that in a neighbouring tribe or group a distinctly contrasting idea or institution may exist. If it comes from a bad spirit, he tries to overcome the evil influence with the help of one or more auxiliary spirits. The forest is cleared by felling the trees the stone axe has now been everywhere replaced by the iron axe and, when the underbrush is dry, setting fire to it. The seminomadic tribes live in villages during the rainy season and go hunting in dry spells—e. Some farming populations are more or less attached to specific locales. Corpses are commonly disposed of by ground burial within or without the house. Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh temples were desecrated. Boys acquire skill in the use of weapons by practicing with small bows or blowguns made by their fathers. Ceremonies are often believed to be indispensable for regulating the course of the Sun and the Moon, the sequence of the seasons, the fertility of plants, the procreation of animals, and the very continuity of human life. Through shamanistic rites or collective ceremonies, humans must encourage and maintain their harmonious integration in the universe, controlling the forces that govern it; their beneficial or harmful effects are largely determined by human action. Tobacco is known by almost all tribes. The most common loom is the heddle loom: The Terena of the southern Mato Grosso divide themselves into endogamous groups: However, not all Muslim rulers persecuted non-Muslims. The mythology of almost all tribes includes a creator of the universe and of people. Thanks to his second soul, man thinks, speaks, and is capable of noble sentiments. The Indian Plate includes most of South Asia, forming a land mass which extends from the Himalayas into a portion of the basin under the Indian Ocean , including parts of South China and Eastern Indonesia , as well as Kunlun and Karakoram ranges,   and extending up to but not including Ladakh , Kohistan , the Hindu Kush range and Balochistan. The Tupinamba houses are reported to have measured up to 20 metres in length. This is why a classification by languages and cultures gives only a vague idea of the complex picture of the forest populations. With the fall of Rajput kingdoms and Vijayanagara, its boundaries reached all of west, as well as the Marathi and Kannada speaking regions of the Deccan peninsula. One finds evidence of metalwork only in the regions near the Andean civilizations, although objects of copper and other metals occasionally found their way across the continent, through channels of trade. Magical and religious ideas are usually expressed in these adornments. Their objective may also be to commune with the dead or with mythical ancestors; when they are connected with the disposal of the dead, they are at the same time passage rites , by means of which the spirits of the dead are made harmless.
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